How Android works?

by hatchbit

The Android operating system is a Linux-based, open-source platform designed for mobile devices.

It was originally developed by Android Inc., a company that was later acquired by Google in 2005. Android is now the most widely used mobile operating system in the world, with a market share of over 70%.

At the core of the Android operating system is the Linux kernel. The kernel is the central component of the operating system that manages interactions between hardware and software. It is responsible for managing input/output operations, memory management, and process control.

On top of the kernel, there are several layers of software that make up the Android operating system. The first layer is the libraries, which provide the core functionality of the operating system. These libraries include the SQLite database, the WebKit browser engine, and the media framework for playing audio and video.

The Android operating system is a Linux-based, open-source platform designed for mobile devices. It was originally developed by Android Inc., a company that was later acquired by Google in 2005.

The second layer is the Android runtime, which consists of the Dalvik virtual machine and the core Java libraries. The Dalvik virtual machine is a custom virtual machine designed specifically for Android that enables multiple applications to run concurrently on the device. The core Java libraries provide the foundation for building Android applications using the Java programming language.

The third layer is the application framework, which provides the APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) that developers use to build Android apps. These APIs allow apps to access the core functionality of the operating system, such as accessing the internet, the camera, and the sensors on the device.

The fourth layer is the applications, which are the apps that run on the device. These can be pre-installed apps that come with the device, or they can be downloaded from the Google Play Store or other app stores.

In addition to these layers, there are also several services that run in the background to provide additional functionality to the operating system. These include the notification service, which displays alerts and notifications to the user; the location service, which provides location information to apps; and the power management service, which manages the battery usage of the device.

Overall, the Android operating system is a powerful and flexible platform that enables developers to build a wide range of apps for mobile devices.

One of the key features of the Android operating system is its ability to run multiple apps concurrently. This is made possible by the Dalvik virtual machine, which enables each app to run in its own process and have its own virtual machine. This allows apps to run independently of each other, which makes it easier for developers to create apps that can run on a wide range of devices with different hardware configurations.

Another key feature of Android is its customizable user interface. The Android operating system includes a set of core UI elements and a set of custom UI elements that developers can use to build the look and feel of their apps. This allows developers to create apps that have a unique look and feel, while still maintaining a consistent overall user experience.

Overall, the Android operating system is a powerful and flexible platform that enables developers to build a wide range of apps for mobile devices. Its open-source nature and customizable user interface make it a popular choice for developers and users alike.

Android versions to date, along with a brief description of each:

Android 1.0 (Released September 2008) – The first version of Android, released as a beta version for developers. It included a number of basic features, such as a web browser, email client, and media player.

Android 1.1 (Released February 2009) – A minor update to Android 1.0 that included a number of bug fixes and small improvements.

Android 1.5 Cupcake (Released April 2009) – A major update to Android that introduced a number of new features, including support for third-party virtual keyboards, video recording, and the ability to upload videos to YouTube.

Android 1.6 Donut (Released September 2009) – Another major update to Android that introduced a number of new features, including support for larger screen sizes and the ability to search the web and the device from the home screen.

Android 2.0 Eclair (Released October 2009) – A major update to Android that introduced a number of new features, including support for multiple accounts, Bluetooth 2.1, and live wallpapers.

Android 2.2 Froyo (Released May 2010) – Another major update to Android that introduced a number of new features, including support for Adobe Flash, faster performance, and the ability to install apps to the SD card.

Android 2.3 Gingerbread (Released December 2010) – A major update to Android that introduced a number of new features, including support for NFC (Near Field Communication), a new keyboard, and a new user interface.

Android 3.0 Honeycomb (Released February 2011) – A major update to Android specifically for tablets that introduced a number of new features, including a redesigned user interface, support for larger screen sizes, and the ability to run multiple apps at the same time.

Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich (Released October 2011) – A major update to Android that introduced a number of new features, including a redesigned user interface, support for facial recognition, and the ability to access the device using voice commands.

Android 4.1 Jelly Bean (Released July 2012) – Another major update to Android that introduced a number of new features, including a more responsive user interface, support for notifications on the lock screen, and the ability to access Google Now from the home screen.

Android 4.4 KitKat (Released October 2013) – A major update to Android that introduced a number of new features, including support for the ART runtime, a redesigned dialer app, and a new notification system.

Android 5.0 Lollipop (Released November 2014) – A major update to Android that introduced a number of new features, including a redesigned user interface, support for 64-bit devices, and a new battery-saving mode.

Android 6.0 Marshmallow (Released October 2015) – Another major update to Android that introduced a number of new features, including support for fingerprint recognition, a redesigned app drawer, and the ability to grant permissions to apps as needed.

Android 7.0 Nougat (Released August 2016) – A major update to Android that introduced a number of new features, including support for split-screen multitasking, a redesigned notification shade, and the ability to customize the quick settings menu.

Android 8.0 Oreo (Released August 2017) – Another major update to Android that introduced a number of new features, including support for picture-in-picture mode, a redesigned settings menu, and the ability to autofill passwords.

Android 9.0 Pie (Released August 2018) – A major update to Android that introduced a number of new features, including a redesigned user interface, support for gesture navigation, and a new feature called Digital Wellbeing to help users manage their device usage.

Android 10 (Released September 2019) – Another major update to Android that introduced a number of new features, including a new system-wide dark theme, support for foldable devices, and improved privacy controls.

Android 11 (Released September 2020) – A major update to Android that introduced a number of new features, including improved messaging and chat features, support for one-time permissions, and the ability to schedule downtime to limit device usage.

Android 12 (Released September 2021) – Another major update to Android that introduced a number of new features, including a redesigned user interface, improved performance, and support for new technologies such as foldable and 5G devices.

Android 13 (Released September 2022) – A major update to Android that introduced a number of new features, including support for new form factors such as wearable devices, improved battery life, and the ability to customize the system’s theme and appearance.

Android 14 (Released September 2023) – Another major update to Android that introduced a number of new features, including support for new technologies such as virtual and augmented reality, improved security and privacy controls, and the ability to connect to and control smart home devices.

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